BASIC OF HACKING

Hacker means someone who finds weaknesses in a computer or computer network, though the term can also refer to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks.Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, or challenge. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground but it is now an open community. While other uses of the word hacker exist that are not related to computer security, they are rarely used in mainstream context.

 

Classifications:-

Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with which they do not agree. Eric S. Raymond (author of The New Hacker’s Dictionary) advocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers. Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and even try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as one wider hacker culture, a view harshly rejected by Raymond himself. Instead of a hacker/cracker dichotomy, they give more emphasis to a spectrum of different categories, such as white hat, grey hat, black hat and script kiddie.

White Hat:-

A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, perhaps to test their own security system or while working for a security company which makes security software. The term “white hat” in Internet slang refers to an ethical hacker. This classification also includes individuals who perform penetration tests and vulnerability assessments within a contractual agreement. The EC-Council , also known as the International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants has developed certifications, course ware, classes, and online training covering the diverse arena of Ethical Hacking.

Black Hat:-

A “black hat” hacker is a hacker who “violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain” (Moore, 2005). Black hat hackers form the stereotypical, illegal hacking groups often portrayed in popular culture, and are “the epitome of all that the public fears in a computer criminal”. Black hat hackers break into secure networks to destroy data or make the network unusable for those who are authorized to use the network.

Part 1: Targeting

The hacker determines what network to break into during this phase. The target may be of particular interest to the hacker, either politically or personally, or it may be picked at random. Next, they will port scan a network to determine if it is vulnerable to attacks, which is just testing all ports on a host machine for a response. Open ports—those that do respond—will allow a hacker to access the system.

Part 2: Research And Information Gathering

It is in this stage that the hacker will visit or contact the target in some way in hopes of finding out vital information that will help them access the system. The main way that hackers get desired results from this stage is from “social engineering”, which will be explained below. Aside from social engineering, hackers can also use a technique called “dumpster diving”. Dumpster diving is when a hacker will literally search through users’ garbage in hopes of finding documents that have been thrown away, which may contain information a hacker can use directly or indirectly, to help them gain access to a network.

Part 3: Finishing The Attack

This is the stage when the hacker will invade the preliminary target that he/she was planning to attack or steal. Many “hackers” will be caught after this point, lured in or grabbed by any data also known as a honeypot (a trap set up by computer security personnel).

Grey Hat:-

A grey hat hacker is a combination of a Black Hat and a White Hat Hacker. A Grey Hat Hacker may surf the internet and hack into a computer system for the sole purpose of notifying the administrator that their system has been hacked, for example. Then they may offer to repair their system for a small fee.

Elite Hacker:-

A social status among hackers, elite is used to describe the most skilled. Newly discovered exploits will circulate among these hackers. Elite groups such as Masters of Deception conferred a kind of credibility on their members.

Script Kiddi:-

A script kiddie (or skiddie) is a non-expert who breaks into computer systems by using pre-packaged automated tools written by others, usually with little understanding of the underlying concept—hence the term script (i.e. a prearranged plan or set of activities) kiddie (i.e. kid, child—an individual lacking knowledge and experience, immature).

Neophyt:-

A neophyte, “n00b”, or “newbie” is someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology, and hacking.

Blue Hat:-

A blue hat hacker is someone outside computer security consulting firms who is used to bug test a system prior to its launch, looking for exploits so they can be closed. Microsoft also uses the term BlueHat to represent a series of security briefing events.

Hacktivist:-

A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to announce a social, ideological, religious, or political message. In general, most hacktivism involves website defacement or denial-of-service attacks. Nation state Intelligence agencies and cyberwarfare operatives of nation states.

REMOVAL OF SHORTCUT VIRUS USING COMMAND PROMPT..

1

Step 1: Go to Start Type “Run” > Type “CMD”

Then ,Open Command Prompt in the Administrative Mode.

Step 2: there will be a black coloured window that will be opened for you.

Step 3: you have to Type in Command prompt :  attrib -h -r -s /s /d <Your USB drive letter>:\*.*(See <Your USB drive letter> from My computer and then type it For ex, if your drive letter is “D” then the command is like: ” attrib -h -r -s /s /d D:\*.* “).

Thank You

3 Basic Tips To Prevent A DDoS Attack

 DDoS Attack

Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks are always in top headlines worldwide, as they are plaguing websites in banks, and virtually of almost every organization having a prominent online presence. The main cause behind the proliferation of DDoS attacks is that there is a very low-cost that the attacker has to incur to put such attack in motion. Fortunately, today various prevention methods have been developed to tackle such attacks. Before delving further into understanding about the ways to prevent DDoS attack, let’s first understand what exactly a DDoS attack is!

Understanding DDOS Attack
 
 DDoS Attack bot
A DDoS (distributed denial-of-service) attack is an attempt made by attackers to make computers’ resources inaccessible to its anticipated user. In order to carry out a DDOS attack the attackers never uses their own system; rather they create a network of zombie computers often called as a “Botnet” – that is a hive of computers, to incapacitate a website or a web server.
Let’s understand the basic idea! Now, the attacker notifies all the computers present on the botnet to keep in touch with a particular site or a web server, time and again. This increases traffic on the network that causes in slowing down the speed of a site for the intended users. Unfortunately, at times the traffic can be really high that could even lead to shutting a site completely.

3 Basic Tips to Prevent a DDoS Attack

There are several ways to prevent the DDOS attack; however, here in this guest post I’ll be covering three basic tips that will help you to protect your website from the DDoS attack.

1. Buy More Bandwidth.

 DDoS Attack bandwidth
One of the easiest methods is to ensure that you have sufficient bandwidth on your web. You’ll be able to tackle lots of low-scale DDOS attacks simply by buying morebandwidth so as to service the requests. How does it help? Well, distributed denial ofservice is a nothing more than a game of capacity. Let’s suppose you have 10,000 computer systems each distributing 1 Mbps directed towards your way. This means you’re getting 10 GB of data that is hitting your web server every second. Now, that’s causes a lot of traffic!
So to avoid such issue, you need to apply the same rule intended for normalredundancy. According to this technique, if you wish to have more web servers just multiply around diverse datacenters and next make use of load balancing. By spreading your traffic to various servers will help you balance the load and will most likely create large space adequate to handle the incessant increase in traffic.
However, there’s a problem with this method that is buying more bandwidth can be a costly affair. And as you’ll know that the current DDoS attacks are getting large, and can be a lot bigger exceeding your budget limit.

2. Opt for DDoS Mitigation Services.

A lot of network or Internet-service providers render DDoS mitigation capabilities. Look for an internet service provider having the largest DDoS protection and mitigation network, automated tools, and a pool of talented anti-DDoS technicians with the wherewithal to take action in real-time as per the varying DDoS attack characteristics. A viable alternative is to utilize a DDoS prevention appliance, which is specifically intended to discover and prevent distributed denial-of-service attacks.

3. Restricted Connectivity.

 DDoS Attack
In case you have computer systems that are connected to the web directly, a better idea is to properly install/configure your routers and firewall so as to limit the connectivity. For an instance, while receiving some data from a client machine you can only allow traffic to pass from the machine only on a few chosen ports (like HTTP, POP, SMTP etc.) via the firewall.

Wrapping Up!

Websites are largely getting attacked by hackers every second. Denial-of-serviceattack is insanely getting huge and is creating a lot of problems for business organizations having strong online vicinity. In this guest post you’ll not only understand what a DDoS attack actually means, but will also come to know about a few type of methods to prevent DDoS attacks. Aforementioned are three tips that I’ll recommend you to run through to at least understand where to get started towards building a resilient web network with chances of surviving a DDoS attack.

Bug In Windows Calculator

Note:- It works with all versions of Windows.

Have you ever used square root button in windows?

If yes, it is a possibility that you might have come across this bug…. If not, you are just about to know it..

Just follow the steps:-

1) Open calculator ie..  
   Goto run and type – calc 

2) Now type the following
   2.1) Type 4
   2.2) Take its square root  by using the square root button,
   2.3) Now you will get 2. Subtract 2 from it.
   2.4) The answer should have been 0 but its not. You would have got a long number as your answer.

See.. it was as simple.

Here is the general syntax to this bug.

1) Take Any number 
2) Take its square root
3) Subtract its square root from it
4) Your answer is not 0.. That’s the bug.

I am sure this was something new for most of you out here..;-)